Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr was the first major battle in the history of Islam. It was fought between the Muslims and the disbelievers of Quraish in Ramadan 2 A.H.
Why did the Battle of Badr take place?
When the Muslims migrated to Madinah they had to leave behind their wealth, property and livestock. The Quraish greedily confiscated all of it, claiming it was theirs.
Later in Madinah, Allah allowed the Muslims to fight back. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ heard of a large Makkan trade caravan heading towards As Sham (syria and the surrounding areas). Seeing an opportunity of obtaining at least part of what the Quraish had taken from them, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ decided to overtake the caravan.
Abu Sufyan, the leader of the caravan, heard about this and changed the route of the caravan. He sent for the Quraish to come and protect their caravan. The Makkans gathered a large army and set out for Badr.
Preparations of the Muslim Army
The Muslims weren’t prepared for war. They had been expecting a skirmish with the few guards of the caravan. When they learnt that the caravan had escaped and they were now facing a huge army, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ met his men to discuss their options. The companions were ready to sacrifice their lives so the truth could live on.
Miqdaad (ra), one of the emigrants from Makkah, said:
“We will not say as the People of Moses said: Go you and your Lord and fight you two. But we shall fight on your right and on your left and in front of you and behind you.”
Sa’d bin Ma’adh (ra), the leader of the Ansaar, said:
O Prophet! I swear by the One Who has sent you with the Truth, that if you plunge in the sea, we will also plunge in with you, and not a single man among us will lag behind. We will not hesitate if you dash against the enemies, for we are firm in far and bold in the fray. Lead us and may Allah bless us and our mission! 
Source: Atlas on the Prophet’s Biography: Dr Shawqi Abu Khalil
Source: Wikipedia. Provided by Dr Zubair Rashid.
The Meeting of the Two Armies
The two armies reached Badr on the night of 16th Ramadan. The Muslims put up a small shelter made of palm branches for the Prophet ﷺ so he could direct the army from there. As a military strategy, they stored water for themselves in reservoirs and filled up the rest of the wells so the enemy could not use them.
The Prophet’s ﷺ Dua
The Prophet ﷺ spent the night praying to Allah for help. He also prayed to Allah when the two armies came face to face. He said, “O Allah, where is Your promise to me? O Allah, accomplish for me what You have promised me! O Allah, if this small band of Muslims is destroyed, You will never be worshipped on earth.”
Help from Allah
The Muslims put their trust in Allah, did the best they could do in terms of planning and strategy and made dua to Allah. Allah then sent His help for them:
إِذْ يُغَشِّيكُمُ ٱلنُّعَاسَ أَمَنَةًۭ مِّنْهُ وَيُنَزِّلُ عَلَيْكُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۭ لِّيُطَهِّرَكُم بِهِۦ وَيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمْ رِجْزَ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنِ وَلِيَرْبِطَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتَ بِهِ ٱلْأَقْدَامَ
“Remember when Allah caused drowsiness to overcome you, giving you a feeling of peace and security from Him. And He sent down rain from the sky to purify you, free you from Shaytan’s whispers, strengthen your hearts, and make your steps firm.” (Surah Anfaal 8, ayah 11)
إِذْ تَسْتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمْ فَٱسْتَجَابَ لَكُمْ أَنِّى مُمِدُّكُم بِأَلْفٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ مُرْدِفِينَ
“When you cried out to your Lord for help, He answered, “I will support you with a thousand angels, one following the other.” (Surah Anfaal 8, ayah 9)
The battle of Badr began with a duel. Quraish’s best horsemen Utbah bin Rabee’ah, Shaybah bin Rabee’ah and Waleed bin Utbah challenged the Muslims to single combat. Hamzah faced Shaybah (ra), Ali fought against Waleed and Ubaidah (ra) stood before Utbah (ra).
Ali and Hamza killed their opponents with ease. Ubaidah (ra) and Utbah had wounded each other. Ali and Hamza went to Ubaidah’s (ra) side and killed Utbah. They then carried Ubaidah (ra) back to their ranks. Later Ubaidah (ra) died due to his injury while the Muslims were on their way to Madinah.
The Muslims attacked with full force. The Quraish fell one after the other and retreated. The Muslims followed them, killing and capturing the disbelievers. Seventy of the disbelievers were killed and seventy were captured. Many important leaders of the Quraish were killed including Abu Jahal, Utbah bin Rabee’ah, Umayyah bin Khalaf and Nadar bin Harith. Fourteen Muslims were also martyred.
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Luqmay Shariah Advisory Board
Sheikh Dr. Saalim Al-Azhari
Dr. Saalim is a graduate from medical school and Al-Azhar University. He has ijazah in multiple sciences including Hadith, Fiqh, Aqeedah and Seerah. He is a Khateeb in London and has appeared on various TV channels and programs.
Dr. Abdul Aziz Alobud
Dr. Abdul Aziz Alobud obtained degrees in law from the Islamic University of Madinah, Penn State University and Sufolk University Law School. He currently serves as the Head of Law Department in the Islamic University of Madinah.
Mufti Billal OmarJee
Mufti Billal completed his Islamic theology studies at Darul Uloom Bury and subsequently also qualified as a Mufti. He has a degree in law from London Met University and has served as an Imam and a head teacher.
 The Sealed Nectar by Safi ur Rehman Mubarakpuri
 Sahih Bukhari: https://sunnah.com/bukhari:3952
 When the Moon Split by Safi ur Rehman Mubarakpuri
 Atlas on the Prophet’s Biography: Dr Shawqi Abu Khalil
 Wikipedia. Provided by Dr Zubair Rashid.
 Musnad Ahmad: https://sunnah.com/ahmad:208